Legal issues with backdating stock options
[THIS SECTION IS BEING EXTENSIVELY "REMODELED" so that all the drafts are similar in format to the short-form confidentiality agreement. That would provide the receiving party with a bright-line sunset date as well as providing the disclosing party with a year or two of safety margin. (b) For the avoidance of doubt, any Specimen of Confidential Information not returned or destroyed remains subject to the Confidentiality Obligations.] [NOTE: Don't rely on the drafts below as a substitute for legal advice about your specific situation. If the receiving party's confidentiality obligations are allowed to expire, the disclosing party might thereafter find it difficult — or, more likely, impossible — to convince a court to enforce any trade-secret rights in the relevant information. A receiving party might find it to be tremendously burdensome and expensive to try to return or destroy all copies of a disclosing party's confidential information, even those in emails, backup systems, etc.See generally Ken Adams, Can a Trust Enter Into a Contract? Failing to name the correct corporate entity as the other party to the contract could leave the drafter's client holding the bag. 2015): Northbound's decision to sue the parent company, and not the subsidiary that was the named party to the contract, proved fatal to Northbound's breach-of-contract case. In that case, the contract (i) stated that it was creating a strategic alliance for the contracting party and its affiliates, and (ii) was signed by the president of the contracting party, who was also the sole managing member of the affiliate. Solely during the Authorized Use Period, the Receiving Party may use Confidential Information to the extent reasonably necessary for one or more of the following: (1) performing the Receiving Party's obligations under the Agreement; (2) exercising the Receiving Party's rights under the Agreement; (3) assessing whether to enter into another agreement with the Disclosing Party; and (4) any other particular authorized uses expressly agreed to in writing by the parties — it is immaterial if one or more of such other authorized uses, if any, falls within any of subdivisions (1) through (3) above.This seems to have happened in Northbound Group, Inc. The Seventh Circuit affirmed summary judgment in favor of the parent company, saying: It goes without saying that a contract cannot bind a nonparty. If appellant is entitled to damages for breach of contract, [it] can not recover them in a suit against appellee because appellee was not a party to the contract. The court held that the affiliate was bound by, and violated, certain restrictions in the contract. Many confidential-information clause templates don't specify any pre-authorized uses of Confidential Information; typically, the parties end up negotiating some fairly-standard categories of authorized use.Also includes links to selected real-world contract forms. The INCOTERMS® are "a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) [that are] widely used in international commercial transactions …. the purpose of corroboration [is] to prevent fraud, by providing independent confirmation of the [witness's] testimony." See Sandt Technology, Ltd. Resco Metal & Plastics Corp., 264 F.3d 1344, 1350 (Fed. 2001) (affirming relevant part of summary judgment; internal quotation marks and citation omitted). (b) Except as otherwise stated below, for information to be considered Confidential Information, the information must: (1) be set forth (or summarized) in tangible form (including for example an electronic storage device); and (2) be marked with a reasonably-prominent, visually-readable notice such as (for example) "Confidential information of [name]" or "Subject to NDA." In assessing whether a disclosing party in fact maintained particular information in confidence, a court very likely will give significant weight to whether the disclosing party caused the information to be marked as confidential. In many situations, these "standard" precautions are likely to satisfy the disclosing party's desires, but for some types of Confidential Information, a disclosing party might want to insist on special precautions — especially in the era of criminal hackers, and even state actors, breaking into insufficiently-secure computer systems and stealing valuable information, such as happened to Sony Pictures Entertainment, allegedly at the hands of North Korea, and to Home Depot, which booked a charge of 1 million after a 2014 theft of customers' credit-card data. (1) will not waive or otherwise affect the Disclosing Party's ability to enforce its other intellectual-property rights (for example, copyrights and patents) against the Receiving Party except to the extent, if any, that the parties expressly agree otherwise in writing; and (2) will not affect any obligation of confidentiality imposed by law.
refers to information — including, for example, information in the categories listed in section 22.214.171.124 — where all of the following are true: (1) the information is the subject of efforts that are reasonable under the circumstances to maintain its secrecy, by and/or on behalf of a Disclosing Party; and (2) the information is initially disclosed, by or with the authorization of the Disclosing Party, to a Receiving Party during the Protected-Disclosure Period; (3) the initial disclosure referred to in subdivision (2) is in connection with the Agreement or a transaction or relationship resulting from the Agreement; and (4) the information is not excluded from Confidential-Information status under the Agreement by, for example, the enumerated exclusions below or failure to comply with a marking requirement (if applicable). Subdivision (3): In connection with the Agreement: This language helps put fences around the parties' confidentiality obligations. A receiving party might want to limit its confidentiality obligations to specific categories of information, such as (for example) financial data, design data, etc.Therefore, crediting plaintiffs' allegations, the release contained in the Certificate is valid, and plaintiffs cannot prevail on their cause of action alleging breach of fiduciary duty. (2) Unless the Agreement expressly states otherwise, IF: Performance of a transaction has already commenced under a prior master agreement between the parties; THEN: That prior master agreement will remain in effect as to that transaction until its performance is completed. The Colorado district court ruled that, contrary to the decision of the arbitration panel, the testimony of the retailer's CEO established that the co-branding agreement had indeed been a "master" agreement; this meant that the Chinese-language notice of arbitration had been insufficient, and that in turn meant that, under the New York Convention, the court could decline to enforce the damages award. refers to a demand for information such as (for example) a subpoena; a search warrant; a civil investigative demand; or a discovery request in a lawsuit; if in each such case, both of the following are true: (1) the demand for information is initiated or propounded by a third party such as (for example) a litigant or a governmental entity; and (2) the Receiving Party's compliance with the demand for information may be compelled under penalty of law.A pre-negotiated master agreement can be extremely useful in business. Citing the virtual unreviewability of arbitration awards even when grounded on errors of law, the Tenth Circuit chose not to address the master-agreement issue: [O]ur holding does not rely on the conclusion that the [sales contract] was bound by the terms of the [co-branding agreement]. DRAFTING LESSON: It's best if purchase orders, statements of work, etc., expressly identify a "master" agreement and state that the master agreement applies. (1) The Receiving Party must seasonably advise the Disclosing Party of the Compulsory Legal Demand (to the extent that doing so is not prohibited by law).The long-term goal of the Common Draft project is to serve as a lasting, public repository of carefully-drafted contract provisions that cover a wide variety of business needs, with annotations, commentary, and student exercises. A receiving party might want an expiration date for confidentiality obligations as a safe harbor. A disclosing party will want to follow up to be sure that the return-or-destruction requirement is actually complied with; if it were to fail to do so, a receiving party (or a third party) could try to use that as evidence that the disclosing party did not take reasonable precautions to preserve the secrecy of its confidential information, as discussed in this annotation.Please email me with suggestions for additions or revisions at [email protected] After X years have gone by, it might well take time and energy for the receiving party to figure out (1) which information of the disclosing party is still confidential, and (2) whether the receiving party might be using or disclosing confidential information in violation of the NDA. Likewise, if the receiving party were to forget to comply with its return-or-destruction obligations, then the disclosing party might use that fact to bash the receiving party in front of a judge or jury.
In the same vein, to save time, contract drafters (and reviewers) can consider incorporating selected Common Draft sections, or even entire contract drafts, by reference and specifying any desired variations or modifications — this could be thought of as "drafting by exception" or even as like INCOTERMS on steroids.* * For clarity: The Common Draft project is not sponsored, endorsed by, or otherwise associated with the International Chamber of Commerce, which produces the INCOTERMS® 2010 rules. That's because doing so can result in destruction of the disclosing party's trade-secret rights in its confidential information after the end of the confidentiality period. An obligation to return or destroy Confidential Information might not be practical if (for example) Confidential Information is embodied in a deliverable (for example, custom-developed computer software, or a physical object) that the receiving party will have the right to keep on using; this might be the case in a services agreement.